Dating Brooch Fasteners - 1850 to 1910By

Dating Brooch Fasteners - 1850 to 1910

One of the best ways to avoid reproductions and fakes is to know and understand how originals are made. Reproductions are rarely made the same as originals due to changes in materials, labor costs and modern production techniques. When looking at brooches, you can get a good idea of the age of the piece by studying the catches, hinges and pins (Fig. 1).

Definitions

For the purposes of our discussion we are going to use the words "brooch" to mean the decorative, ornamental piece. The word "pin" will refer to the pointed piece of metal that pierces the clothing. The "hinge" is the assembly that allows the pin to pivot. The "catch" is the piece or mechanism that holds the fastener at the pointed end opposite the hinge. Pins, hinges, catches and other non-decorative pieces such as jump rings, latches, etc., are collectively called "findings".

Hinges

TUBE HINGE - From about 1850 to around 1910 almost all hinges on brooches and pins were tube hinges. (Tube hinges were also used during other eras but not to the extent they were used during last half of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century.) Tube hinges are formed by three cylinders, or tubes, of hollow metal (Figs. 4-5). Two tubes are attached to the decorative piece; one tube is attached to the pin. The tube on the pin is jointed to the two tubes on the decorative piece with a rod that passes through all three tubes. Note that the tube on the fastener is a separate piece soldered to the end of the pin (Fig. 5).

Tube hinges were made by hand. Although they all generally have the same basic construction, they may vary considerably in appearance and the exact number and shape of pieces used. Tube hinges were usually made by the same person who made the brooch.

Editor Note: Tube hinges were also used during other eras but not to the extent they were used during last half of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century.

ROUND HINGE The round hinge is a machine made mass produced finding introduced in the 1920s and pretty much standard by about 1930. The round hinge was a big labor saving device. Most round hinges came as part of a per-assembled unit that included the hinge, catch and pin. Such units could be attached to the brooch in one step. Previously, tube hinges and catches were all attached individually. Some round hinges, though, can be found separately (Fig. 7). These single pieces were mostly made for repair work. The pads below the hinge made soldering easier.

Pins that go with round hinges can be identified because the pin is one single piece (see Fig. 7 ). Pins for tube hinges, remember, are made of two pieces: the pin and a separate tube soldered to the pin.

Catches

"C" CATCH The earliest catches were simple bends of metal shaped like the letter C (Figs. 9-11). The pin was kept within the C with tension created by the pin against the fabric to which it was attached. Some pins were held in place by pressure of a bend in the pin which pressed against the C. This type of catch was not very secure because the pin could slip out of the C. C catches are generally always hand made. A C catch of some type was in use from about 1850 to 1910.

EARLY SAFETY CATCHES - Around 1890, jewelers begin experimenting with ways to more securely hold the pin in the catch. These hand made efforts are the first so called "safety catches". They are not called 'safety because they prevented being poked with the pin. Oh no. They provided safety against loosing your brooch! Saving blood, although noble, was a secondary consideration to protecting a valuable piece of jewelry.

Early safety catches, like tube hinges, are hand made. Generally, the same person who made the brooch also made the early safety catches. Because they are hand made, the early safety catches show lots of variation. Some are simple like the lever safety in Fig. 13 while others are quite complicated like the multi-jawed scissor-like device in Fig. 15A-B.

MODERN SAFETY CATCH - The safety catch used today is essentially the same one that first became widespread in the late 1920s and early 1930s. It is machine made with a rotating jaw that locks the pin in the catch (Fig. 16). It is usually mounted in a preassembled unit, such as a bar, with a round hinge (Fig. 8). Modern safety catches are also available separately on pads for repair work (Fig. 17). Modern safety catches are just another commodity that the jeweler or manufacturer buys ready-made to save labor.

PINS - Generally, the greater the diameter and heavier the material, the older the pin. Heavy pins were acceptable in the loosely woven natural fabrics of the 19th century. The finer weaves and increasing use of synthetic fabrics in the 20th century required pins that were progressively thinner and lighter weight.

Another clue to age provided by pins is how far they extend beyond the catch. Pins used in mid-19th century brooches commonly extend from 1/8" to 1/4" beyond the catch (see illustrations, Fig. 2). Many pins of this period may also extend that same distance beyond the edge of the brooch itself (Fig. 18).

Other Hints about Fasteners

Keep in mind that non-original fasteners like modern safety catches may have been added to genuinely old brooches as legitimate repairs. Or it could be a sign of a badly damaged or "made up" piece. Be sure to base your evaluation on a thorough inspection of the entire piece. Never use one single test.

When evaluating karat content, avoid using the karat marks that may appear on fasteners. These small parts are easily replaced with ones of false or higher karat markings. Likewise, when you conduct a test for karat content, don't apply your testing solutions to fasteners. Apply your testing solutions to the bezel or main frame of the brooch.

Typical Brooch Fastener

Images

Fig. 1 Parts of a typical fastener include the pin, hinge and catch. Side view shown of typical arrangement.

Top View Hinges, Catches, Pins

Images

Fig. 2 Note that the older the fastener, the farther beyond the catch the pin extends.

Side View of Catches

Images

Fig. 3 Early catches were made by hand. Modern catches used since around 1930 are mass produced by machine.

Images

Fig. 4 - Tube Hinge Ca. 1850-70 Two tubes soldered directly to brooch; one tube soldered to pin.

Images

Fig. 5 - Tube hinge Slightly later than Fig. 4. Tubes attached to pad for easy soldering to brooch. Note separate tube soldered to pin.

Images

Fig. 6 - Round hinge Used since about 1930. Typical machine made assembly of pin, hinge and catch saved labor attaching to brooch.

Images

Fig. 7 - Round hinge Note pin is one single piece. Round hinges like this on pads were made primarily as repair parts since 1930.

Images

Fig. 8 Round hinge bar assembly mounted on ca. late 1920-early 1930s brooch. Modern safety catch on opposite end

"C" Catches - Handmade, ca. 1850-1910

Images

Fig. 9 Simple style.

Images

Fig. 10 Looped style.

Images

Fig. 11 Safety style.

Early 'Safety' Catches Handmade, ca. 1890-1910+

Editor note: Push-pull or Trombone catches were not referred to as 'safety' clasps until the later part of the 19th century. The Push-pull or Trombone catch was patented in Britain in 1850 and was used prior to 1890 in British brooch designs, well before they became popular in the US. They remained popular with British designers until the 1940s.

Images

Fig. 12 Push-pull safety (Trombone), Examples: ca. 1890.

Images

Fig. 13 Lever safety, ca. 1900

Images

Fig. 14-A Capped C safety, open.

Images

Fig. 14-B Above safety, closed.

Images

Fig. 15-A Unusual ca. 1890s safety, open.

Images

Fig. 15-B Above safety, closed.

Modern Safety Catch Machine Made Since ca. 1930

Images

Fig. 16-A Round safety catch closed position.

Images

Fig. 16-B Round safety catch, open position.

Images

Fig. 17 Modern safety catch on pad used for repair work on ca. 1880s brooch. Original tube hinge at opposite end (not shown).

Images

Fig. 18 Note how pins extend beyond edge of brooches (center, arrows). Original catalog illustration dated 1876.